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OBJECT LANGUAGE. A category of nonverbal communication that involves the communicative use of material things, including clothing, cosmetics, furniture, and architecture.
OBJECTIVE FUNCTION. A mathematical representation of the relationship to be optimized in a linear programming problem.
OFFICE AUTOMATION SYSTEM (OAS). A computer-based information system aimed at facilitating communication and increasing the productivity of managers and office workers through document and message processing.
OMBUDSPERSON. Usually an executive operating outside the normal chain of command whose job is to handle issues involving employee grievances and warnings about serious ethical problems.
ON-LINE PROCESSING. An arrangement where-by data can be accessed and processed immediately.
ONE-WAY COMMUNICATION. The communication that results when the communication process does not allow for feedback.
OPEN SYSTEM. A system that operates in continual interaction with its environment.
OPERATING BUDGET. A type of budget involving a statement that presents the financial plan for each responsibility center during the budget period and reflects operating activities involving revenues and expenses.
OPERATIONAL CONTROL. A control type concerning mainly lower-level managers that involves overseeing the implementation of operating plans, monitoring day-to-day results, and taking corrective action when required.
OPERATIONAL GOALS. Targets or future end results set by lower management that address specific measurable outcomes required from the lower levels.
OPERATIONAL PLANS. The means devised to support implementation of tactical plans and achievement of operational goals; such plans are usually developed by lower management in conjunction with middle management.
OPERATIONS MANAGEMENT. The management of the productive processes that convert inputs into goods and services; the name also given to the function or field of expertise that is primarily responsible for managing the production and delivery of an organization’s products and services.
OPERATIONS RESEARCH. Another name commonly used for management science.
OPPORTUNITY PROBLEM. A type of problem in managerial decision making involving a situation that offers a strong potential for significant organizational gain if appropriate actions are taken.
ORCHESTRATOR. A high-level manager who articulates the need for innovation, provides funding for innovating activities, creates incentives for middle managers to sponsor new ideas, and protects idea people.
ORDERING COST. An inventory cost that is comprised of the expenses involved in placing an order (such as paperwork, postage, and time).
ORGANIC CHARACTERISTICS. The likely characteristics of firms operating in a highly unstable environment, such as decentralization of decision making, few rules and regulations, and both hierarchical and lateral communication channels.
ORGANIZATION. Two or more persons engaged in a systematic effort to produce goods or services.
ORGANIZATION CHART. A line diagram that depicts the broad outlines of an organization’s structure.
ORGANIZATION DESIGN. The process of developing an organization structure.
ORGANIZATION STRUCTURE. The formal pattern of interactions and coordination design by management to link the tasks of individuals and groups in achieving organizational goals.
ORGANIZATIONAL CULTURAL CHANGE. An intervention involving the development of a corporate culture that is in synchronization with organizational strategies and other factors, such as structure.
ORGANIZATIONAL CULTURE. A system of shared values, assumptions, beliefs, and norms that unite the members of an organization.
ORGANIZATIONAL DEVELOPMENT (OD). A charge effort that is planned, focused on an entire organization or a large subsystem, managed from the top, aimed at enhancing organizational health and effectiveness, and based on planned interventions.
ORGANIZATIONAL PROBLEMS. Discrepancies between a current state or condition and what is desired.
ORGANIZATIONAL SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY. The obligation of an organization to seek actions that protect and improve the welfare of society along with its own interests.
ORGANIZATIONAL SOCIAL RESPONSIVENESS. A term that refers to the development of organizational decision processes whereby managers anticipate, respond to, and manage areas of social responsibility.
ORGANIZATIONAL TERMINATION. The process of ceasing to exist as an identifiable organization.
ORGANIZING. The management function that focuses on allocating and arranging human and non-human resources so that plans can be carried out successfully.
OSSIFICATION. A condition that may occur in stage V (resource maturity) of small-business growth that is characterized by lack of innovation and avoidance of risk.
OUTPUTS. The components of an organizational system that include the products, services, and other outcomes produced by the organization.
OVERCONFIDENCE. The tendency to be more certain of judgments regarding the likelihood of a future event than one’s actual predictive accuracy warrants.
OVERCONTROL. The limiting of individual job autonomy to such a point that it seriously inhibits effective job performance.
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