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Z94.10 Management

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IDEA CHAMPION. An individual who generates a new idea or believes in the value of a new idea and supports it in the face of numerous potential obstacles.

IMMORAL MANAGEMENT. An approach to managerial ethics that not only lacks ethical principles but is actively opposed to ethical behavior.

IMPORT QUOTA. A type of trade barrier in the form of a limit on the amount of a product that may be imported over a given period of time.

INCOME STATEMENT. A financial statement that summarizes the financial results of company operations over a specified time period, such as a quarter or a year.

INCREMENTAL MODEL. A nonrational model of managerial decision making stating that managers make the smallest response possible that will reduce the problem to at least a tolerable level.

INCREMENTALIST APPROACH. An approach to controlling an innovation project to controlling an innovation project that relies heavily on clan control but also involves a phased set of plans and accompanying bureaucratic controls that begin at a very general level and grow more specific as the project progresses.

INCUBATOR. An organization whose purpose is to nurture new ventures in their very early stages by providing space (usually at a site housing other new ventures as well), stimulation, support, and a variety of basic services, often at reduced fees.

INDEPENDENT DEMAND INVENTORY. A type of inventory consisting of end products, parts used for repairs, and other items whose demand is tied more directly than that for dependent demand inventory items to market issues.

INDIRECT INTERLOCK. A situation having environmental influence in which two companies each have a director on the board of a third company.

INDIVIDUALISM-COLLECTIVISM. A cultural dimension in Gert Hofstede’s framework for analyzing societies that involves the degree to which individuals concern themselves with their own interests and those of their immediate family as opposed to the interests of a larger group.

INDIVIDUALIZED CONSIDERATION. A leadership factor that involves delegating projects to help develop each follower’s capabilities, paying personal attention to each follower’s needs, and treating each follower as an individual worthy of respect.

INFORMAL COMMUNICATION. Communication that takes place without regard to hierarchical or task requirements.

INFORMAL GROUP. A group established by employees, rather than by the organization, in order to serve group members’ interests or social needs.

INFORMAL LEADER. An individual, other than the formal leader, who emerges from the group as a major influence and is perceived by group members as a leader.

INFORMATION. Data that has been analyzed or processed into a form that is meaningful for decision makers.

INFORMATION CENTER. A centrally located group of hardware, software, and information system professionals which is dedicated to assisting users with information system development and which can be used to manage end-use computing.

INFORMATION POWER. Power that results from access to and control over the distribution of important information about organizational operations and future plans.

INFORMATION SYSTEM. A set of procedures designed to collect (or retrieve), process, store, and disseminate information to support planning, decision making, coordination, and control.

INFRASTRUCTURE. The highways, railways, airports, sewage facilities, housing, educational institutions, recreation facilities, and other economic and social amenities that signal the extent of economic development in an area and constitute an economic factor that influences the ability of organization to conduct business in that area successfully.

INITIATING STRUCTURE. The degree to which a leader defines his or her own role and the roles of subordinates in terms of achieving unit goals.

INNOVATION. A new idea applied to initiating or improving a process, product, or service.

INPUTS. The components of an organizational system that include the various human, material, financial, equipment, and informational resources required to produce goods and services.

INSTITUTIONAL POWER. A need for power in which individuals focus on working with others to solve problems and further organizational goals.

INTEGRATION.  The extent to which there is collaboration among departments that need to coordinate their efforts.

INTELLECTUAL STIMULATION. A leadership factor that involves offering new ideas to stimulate followers to rethink old ways of doing things, encouraging followers to look at problems from multiple vantage points, and fostering creative breakthroughs in obstacles that had seemed insurmountable.

INTEREST GROUP. An informal group created to facilitate employee pursuits of common concern.

INTERLOCKING DIRECTORATES. A situation in which organizations have board members in common either directly or indirectly.

INTERNAL AUDIT. A financial audit involving a review of both financial statements and internal operating efficiency that is conducted by members of the organization.

INTERNAL ENVIRONMENT. The general conditions that exist within an organization.

INTERNATIONAL BUSINESS. Profit-related activities conducted across national boundaries.

INTERNATIONAL ELEMENT. The element of the mega-environment that includes the developments in countries outside an organization’s home country that have the potential of impacting on the organization.

INTERNATIONAL MANAGEMENT. The process of organizing, leading, and controlling in organizations engaged in international business.

INTERVENTIONS. Change strategies developed and initiated with the help of a change agent.

INTRAPRENEURS. Individuals who engage in entrepreneurial roles inside organization.

INTRAPRENEURSHIP. The process of innovating within an existing organization.

INTRINSIC REWARDS. Rewards that are related to our own internal experiences with successful performance, such as feelings of achievement, challenge, and growth.

INVENTORY. A stock of materials that are used to facilitate production or to satisfy customer demand.

INVENTORY MODELS. Quantitative approaches to planning the appropriate level for the stocks of materials needed by an organization.

INVESTMENT CENTER. A responsibility center whose budgetary performance is based on return on investment.

INVISIBLE HAND. A classical view of corporate social responsibility which holds that the entire social responsibility of a corporation can be summed up as “make profits and obey the law”.

IRON LAW OF RESPONSIBILITY. A law connected with the enlightened self-interest argument which states that “in the long run, those who do not use power in a manner that society considers responsible will tend to lose it”.

ISSUES MANAGEMENT. The process of identifying a relatively small number of emerging social concerns of particular relevance to the organization, analyzing their potential impact, and preparing an effective response.

ITEM COST. An inventory cost that is the price of an inventory item itself.

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